Vδ1 γδ T Cells

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Brief Introduction of Vδ1 γδ T Cells

Vδ1 co-express with diverse Vγ chains such as Vγ2, Vγ3, Vγ4, Vγ5, Vγ8, and Vγ10 to form different γδ1 T cell subsets. Human Vδ1 γδ T cells are mainly distributed in mucosal epithelial tissues such as skin and small intestine. Vδ1 γδ T cells comprise approximately 40% of all intraepithelial lymphocytes in the large intestine. Besides, Vδ1 γδ T cells are also found in peripheral blood, accounting for 1-3% of lymphocytes second to Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Increasing evidence currently supports a critical role for Vδ1 γδ T cells in anti-tumor responses.

Role of Vδ1 γδ T Cells in Tumor Progression

A number of studies have proved Vδ1 γδ T cells contribute to the immune response against many cancers such as chronic lymphoid leukemia, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and other cancers. Vδ1 cells can express natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) such as NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46 to display an NK-like phenotype. They can recognize the stress-inducible MHC class I related polymorphic molecules such as MICA/MICB that expressed by some tumor and virus-infected cells via NCRs and exert a powerful tumoricidal activity.

The tumor cell recognition of γδ T cells. Fig.1 The tumor cell recognition of γδ T cells. (Liu, 2020)

In a study, an orthotopic mouse xenograft model of colon carcinoma has been used to research the anti-metastatic potential of human Vδ1 γδ T cells. The results showed that the Vδ1 γδ T cells could not only suppress primary colon tumor growth but also the emergence of secondary tumor foci in the lungs and liver.

In B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), Vδ1 T cells expanded from peripheral blood exert cytotoxicity to B-CLL-derived cell lines, which provides a novel candidate for the cellular treatment of B-CLL. In triple-negative breast cancer, breast-resident Vδ1 T cells can be activated via the NKG2D receptor and are associated with remission and overall survival of breast cancer.

Furthermore, tumor-derived Vδ1 γδ T cells have also been revealed to inhibit antitumor responses. Human Vδ1 γδ T cells isolated from breast cancer biopsies suppress naïve T cell growth and IL2 production by effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Also, the tumor-derived Vδ1 cells can inhibit the growth of Vδ2 cells which exert potent antitumor activities.

Creative Biolabs leverages our outstanding capabilities in the research of γδ T cells to support all-around and professional scientific research services, involved in the development of γδ T cell therapy, analysis of γδ T cell receptor, γδ T cell development, and γδ T cell engineering. If you are interested in the development of γδ T cell therapy, please contact us for more details.


  1. Liu, Y.; Zhang, C. The role of human γδ T cells in anti-tumor immunity and their potential for cancer immunotherapy. Cells. 2020, 9: 1206
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