γδ T Cell Subsets Based on StructureOnline Inquiry
T lymphocytes can be divided into 2 populations: αβ T and γδ T cells. They are distinguished by the structure of their cell receptors. The αβ T cell receptors (TCR) are composed of α and β chains and the γδ TCRs are composed of γ and δ chains. αβ T cells account for a majority of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood, while γδ T cells only account for 1-5%.
Fig.1 Tumor cell ligands recognized by human γδ T cells and strategies for γδ T cell-based immunotherapy. (Kabelitz, 2007)
Human γδ T cells are divided into three types based on the differences of TCR δ-chain: Vδ1 γδ T cells, Vδ2 γδT cells, and other γδ T cells subsets. Different γδ T cell subsets act as different functions in the progression of diseases.
- Vδ1+ γδ T cells
- Vδ2+ γδ T cells
- Other γδ T Cells Subsets
Human Vδ1+ γδ T cells are primarily found in the skin, small intestine, and other mucosal tissues. A small amount of Vδ1+ γδ T cells is also found in the spleen and liver. Vδ1+ γδ T cells contain diverse Vγ chains such as Vγ2, Vγ3, Vγ4, Vγ5, Vγ8, and Vγ10. They account for less than 30% of γδ T cells in peripheral blood.
Vδ2+ γδ T cells are mainly Vγ9Vδ2 T cells whose receptors consist of Vδ2 and Vγ9 chains. They account for more than 70% of γδ T cells in peripheral blood. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been indicated to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and promote tumor cell apoptosis, thus providing a promising candidate for anti-tumor immunotherapy.
Other γδ T cells subsets mainly contain Vδ3 and Vδ4 T cells. Vδ3 T cells consist of the majority of non-Vδ1 and non-Vγ9Vδ2 γδT cells. Vδ5 T cells whose receptors are composed of Vγ4 and Vδ5 chains are mainly found in peripheral blood. Vδ5 Vγ4 T cells can recognize endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) on CMV-infected epithelial cells and epithelial tumor cells via TCR.
Table.1 Feature of human γδ T cell subsets. (Liu, 2020)
|Subset||Common Vγ Pairs||Tissue Distribution||Anti-Tumor Effector Molecules|
|Vδ1||Vγ2, Vγ3, Vγ4, Vγ5, Vγ8, Vγ10||Skin, small intestine, liver, spleen||IFN-γ, TNF-α, Perforin, Granzyme, TRAIL, FASL|
|Vδ2||Vγ9||Peripheral blood||IFN-γ, TNF-α, Perforin, Granzyme, TRAIL, FASL|
|Vδ3||Not defined||Liver, small intestine||Not defined|
|Vδ5||Vγ4||Peripheral blood||Not defined|
With outstanding capabilities in the research of γδ T cells, we are capable of providing a full range of services including the development of γδ T cell therapy, analysis of γδ T cell receptor, γδ T cell development, and γδ T cell engineering. If you are looking for a reliable partner to help you develop γδ T cell therapy for disease treatment, please contact us to discuss your project. We will help you to accelerate the development of γδ T cell therapy.
- Kabelitz, D.; et al. Perspectives of γδ T cells in tumor immunology. Cancer Res. 2007, 67(1): 5-8.
- Liu, Y.; Zhang, C. The role of human γδ T cells in anti-tumor immunity and their potential for cancer immunotherapy. Cells. 2020, 9: 1206