γδ T Cell SubsetsOnline Inquiry
γδ T cells are a population of innate-like T lymphocytes characterized by T-cell receptors (TCRs) composed of γ and δ chains. They are widely distributed in the peripheral blood (PB) and mucosal tissues. γδ T cells have been revealed to exert dual roles in tumor immunity. On the one hand, γδ T cells suppress tumor occurrence by multiple mechanisms, including cytotoxicity against infected or tumor cells, cytokine and chemokine production, antigen-presenting functions, and regulatory abilities. On the other hand, γδ T cells exert suppressive effects on antitumor responses.
Fig.1 Polarization and responses of human γδ T-cell subsets to tumors. (Wu, 2017)
Human γδ T cells can be divided into four major groups according to their TCR δ chain usage: Vδ1, Vδ2, Vδ3, and Vδ5 T cells.
- Vδ1+ γδ T cells
- Vδ2+ γδ T cells
- Vδ3+ γδ T cells
- Vδ5+ γδ T cells
Vδ1 is paired with various Vγ chains such as Vγ2, Vγ3, Vγ4, Vγ5, Vγ8, and Vγ10, to form different γδ T cell subsets. Vδ1+ γδ T cells play an anti-tumor effect in multiple cancers, such as chronic lymphoid leukemia, breast cancer, and multiple myeloma.
Vδ2 is almost exclusively paired with Vγ9 to form Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, which are uniquely activated by phosphoantigens. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells have been indicated a strong anti-tumor ability against various tumors such as cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer, and other cancers.
Vδ3+ γδ T cells mainly exist in healthy peripheral blood and the liver. Little research has been done on their effects on the tumor process.
Vδ5 is paired with Vγ4 to form Vδ5 Vγ4 T cells.
Similar to αβ T cells, γδ T cells can be divided into different subsets based on their different functions.
- Effector γδ T Cells
- Regulatory γδ T Cells
Effector γδ T cells include IFN-γ-producing cells, IL-17-producing γδ T cells, and Follicular T helper (TFH) cells. They are involved in the regulation of tumor progress directly. γδ T17 cells can produce IL-17 which is a pro-inflammatory factor and associated with the development of chronic tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases.
Regulatory γδ T cells, also known as γδ Treg cells, have been shown to exert an immunosuppressive effect during tumor progression. They are enriched in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of several types of cancer. A study showed tumor-infiltrating γδ Treg cells suppressed T-cell responses and dendritic cells (DC) maturation. Besides, γδ Treg cells have been also revealed to induce the senescence of T cells and DCs in cancer progression.
Creative Biolabs has focused on the research of γδ T cells for several years. We can leverage our expertise and advanced biological research technologies to support a full range of γδ T cell research services, including the development of γδ T cell therapy, analysis of γδ T cell receptor, γδ T cell development, and γδ T cell engineering.
- Wu, D.; et al. Human γδ T-cell subsets and their involvement in tumor immunity. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2017, 14: 245-253.
- Liu, Y.; Zhang, C. The role of human γδ T cells in anti-tumor immunity and their potential for cancer immunotherapy. Cells. 2020, 9: 1206