Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Activation and Expansion

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Vγ9Vδ2 T cells act as potent anti-tumor effector cells, thus making them become attractive candidates for developing anti-tumor immunotherapy. With extensive experience and advanced technologies, Creative Biolabs offers the best Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and expansion services at a competitive price, to help our clients achieve enough numbers of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell for developing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-based immunotherapies.

Roles of Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells in Cancer

Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are a major human blood γδ T cell population, about accounting for 50-90% of γδ T cells. They play a key role in innate and adaptive immune responses to tumors. Vγ9Vδ2-T cells can directly kill tumor cells by secreting cell-lytic molecules. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can also indirectly prime and regulate the immunological functions of other innate and adaptive immune cells, such as B cells, to fight tumors. These features make Vγ9Vδ2 T cells emerged as one of the most attractive candidates for antitumor immunotherapy.

Antitumoral versus pro-tumoral activities of human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. Fig.1 Antitumoral versus pro-tumoral activities of human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. (Xiang, 2017)

Activation and Expansion of Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells

The activation and expansion of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells aim to achieve clinically relevant numbers for developing Vγ9Vδ2 T cell immunotherapy. There are two strategies for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and expansion: ex vivo and in vivo. The first is to stimulate and expand Vγ9Vδ2 T cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) ex vivo by synthetic administration of phosphoantigen (pAg) or nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs). The second is to stimulate peripheral blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in vivo by the systemic administration of pAg or N-BPs and expand them by systemic administration of exogenous IL-2. Here introduce two methods of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell expansion.

Various pAg and BP compounds. Fig.2 Various pAg and BP compounds. (Yazdanifar, 2020)

  • Bisphosphonate-Based γδ T Cell Expansion
  • BPs are a class of chemical compounds with two PO3 (phosphonate) groups that are widely applied for in vitro and in vivo expansion of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is one of the most potent N-BPs.

  • Feeder Cell-Based γδ T Cell Expansion
  • In order to produce a larger number of Vγ9Vδ2 effector cells for cancer therapy, artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) such as K562 cells have been developed as a feeder cell-based method to support a more sustained source of activation and co-stimulation.


With outstanding capabilities in γδ T cell isolation, activation and expansion, characterization, production, cytotoxicity test, and migration assay, Creative Biolabs is offering a series of top-quality γδ T cell development services to accelerate clinical application of γδ T cell based immunotherapy. Especially, we offer a variety of solutions for Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and expansion, such as BP-based, cytokine-based, and feeder cell-based, in close cooperation with customers.

If you are interested in our Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and expansion services, please contact us for more details.


  1. Xiang, Z.; Tu, W. Dual face of Vγ9Vδ2-T cells in tumor immunology: anti- versus pro-tumoral activities. Front. Immunol. 2017, 8:1041
  2. Yazdanifar, M.; et al. γδ T cells: the ideal tool for cancer immunotherapy. Cells. 2020, 9(5):1305
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